In simple words unemployment refers to the state of a person without any work that is required to earn money for his/her living. It is the one of the most challenging social issue faced by most of the societies or nations in the world. The battling economies around the world are promoting more and more unemployment and in a few years’ time it has only grown considerably thanks to the global recession. Unemployment makes a person feel uncertain and insecure about his future. This leads to an increased negativity and hence a lot of other things that can only cause harm to the person as well as society.
There are many reasons that make unemployment grow further such as poor economic conditions of a country, growing population, inflation, recession, corruption, bad governance, failure of educational institutions and prevailing poverty. It is considered as a social malaise as it makes an individual take a route of unlawful activities which not only put him in danger but also the society at large. If remained unchecked or unaddressed, unemployment promotes a number of social crimes such as robbery, kidnapping, loot, smuggling, drug trafficking and other related crimes. While employment helps fulfill the basic requirement of an individual thereby stopping him/her from committing crimes, unemployment on the other hand lowers self-esteem and brings a bad name to the family and society.
So it is clear that unemployment has widespread social and economic effects. If an individual can’t feed himself and his family, hunger and homelessness are bound to get aggravated. It leads confrontation and conflicts in families and societies. The collective quality of life of the society is also decreases because of unemployment. So a proper educational policy on the part of different governments can be an effective tool for unemployment in young population.
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Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society
Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society
The problem of unemployment has remained intractable even in the developed economies of the world namely, U.S.A, Germany, France to mention but these few. Being employed makes one happy.
To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
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Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.Awake (1983) stated that meaningful employment could bring happiness, makes one wanted and needed. It further argued that people acquire certain skills so that they could be employed and be able to provide for their needs and that of the family, but unemployment seems to step in and dash this hope.
Unemployment is one of the social problems in Nigeria which has assumed a greater dimension with the emergence of “black god” that is crude oil, as every young school leavers had to abandon the village in search of employment in the urban centres. Government on her side also forget Agricultural sector, which was the mainstay of the economy in the 1960s.
By 1986, an estimated 3.7 million people were said to be unemployed with about 1.5 million youths joining the labour force annually. This resulted in an urban unemployment rate of 10% and rural unemployment rate of 4% (Federal Office of Statistics, 1986). All the components of the labour force suffered from the scourge of unemployment of youths, especially graduates, retrenched civil servants and private sectors employees.
The unemployment consists of all those that are willing to work and able to work but are unable to find job. The total labour force of Nigeria is made up of those between the age of 15 years and 59 years. Unemployment arises when the demand for labour of the factors of production falls short of supply.
In this study therefore, we are going to examine the causes and consequences of unemployment in the society with Ika North East as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, a number of states including Delta State, experience a rise in unemployment among youths. Unemployment situation in Delta State is inherent in the capitalist system of Nigeria economy. As policy makers are not committed to evolve pragmatic measures capable of reducing unemployment to the barest minimum, we find out that the unemployed are alienated, because such policies as poverty alleviation programme, National Directorate For Employment (NDE) not in any way reduced the problem of unemployment, but has been hijacked by some selfish and greedy Nigerians.
Mccleland (1961) made an assumption about people which say that man is not often looked upon as a rational economic man, social man, self actualizing man and complex. So that unemployment seems to dash away these needs. Unemployment has been the bane of the society, it has defied solutions both state and local governments.
It is for this reason that the researcher was motivated to undertake this study in order to investigate the causes and consequences of unemployment in the study area. It is the hope of the researcher that if the causes and consequences of unemployment in the study area are known, the solution will not be far fetched.
A. CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Lampam (1974), in his research on unemployment and its causes, found out that a good research on the effect of unemployment and an intelligent approach to public policy aimed at preventing or reducing it would demand some understanding of the cause of unemployment in a given society.
Lampam (1974) report on the cause of unemployment stated that agriculture is the taproot of an economy. He warned that any attempt to give agricultural activities a secondary attention in the economy of any nation would sooner or later create unemployment situation.
Investigation into Nigeria sources of revenue in the 1960s and early 1970s showed that agricultural products was the chief source of income to the country. But with the neglect of agriculture due to oil boom, the economy late failed, and has resulted into unemployment.
The second factor according to Lampan (1974) was the degree of unemployment in the developing countries were due to the neglect of indigenous technology and inadequate patronage received by local industries from the consumers and their government as well as the rate of profit reinvestment in the foreign owned industries in the country. He observed that in any economic system where indigenous technology and local industries were not encouraged and patronized, there tend to be a decrease in the production capacity and, an increase in the dumping of the countries wealth in foreign countries in the name of purchasing foreign goods.
The picture portrayed by Lampan above, was actually what happened in Nigeria, were especially during the oil boom period that has resulted to the unemployment situation in the country.
Finally, the greatest unemployment-causing factor in Nigeria has been identified to the ineptitude, corruption, fraud and general failure of leadership in our country.
Problems of Unemployment
Some of the problems of unemployment are as follows:
1. Unemployment brings frustration and disappointment.
2. Unemployment causes crime like robbery, prostitution, drug trafficking.
3. Unemployment syndrome is so rampant in rural and urban area.
4. Unemployment had led to increase in poverty.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Do you think that if there is adequate employment in Ika North East, crime rate will fall?
2. How is crime rate in Ika North East Local Government Area?
3. Do you think that increase in unemployment had led to poverty?
4. Do you think that if there is adequate employment, poverty level would be reduced?
5. Does unemployment bring frustration and disappointment to the unemployed?
6. Does population growth influence unemployment standard in the area?
7. Is unemployment syndrome so rampant in rural areas than in the urban?
8. To which factor could unemployment be attributed?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are as follows:
1. To examine the major factors that causes unemployment in the society.
2. To assess the consequences of unemployment on the society.
3. To examine efforts by the government both state and federal, individual organization in employment generation.
4. To suggest appropriate strategies for the reduction of unemployment in the society.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Unemployment now creates a serious problem in the society. It affects the economic and socio-political life of the society, so embarking on a research of this nature has always been to ultimately find out the causes and consequences of unemployment and then find solutions to the problems affecting the society.
It is in this light that the researcher wishes to state strongly that the findings will be of immense importance and value to the government and all its agencies. The findings will provide a blue print for government policies towards the reduction of unemployment in the society. It will not only be an educational study, but also lay a good groundwork for further exploration on the theme in Ika North East Local Government Area. Apart from contributing to the existing literature in this area, it is expected that the findings will generate further investigation into the working out some theories in this area.
1.6 STUDY HYPOTHESIS
1. There is a significant relationship between unemployment and crime rate.
2. There is a significant relationship between unemployment and poverty.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
UNEMPLOYMENT – Refers to a socio-economic situation in which persons who have no work are able and willing to work and also actively seeking for work have no work.
CRIME – Refers to any wrong which affects the interest of the society as a whole and for which the offender is liable to punishment.
POVERTY – This is the deprivation of the basic necessities of life. A state where individuals lack food, shelter ad clothing is termed poverty.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS – This is the position of an individual within the society and economic hierarchy.
SOCIETY – A society is a group of people who live in a particular geographical location and its people are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups around them.
SOCIAL PROBLEM – Are objective conditions that affect majority of persons in the society e.g. unemployment.
INFLATION – This is the rise in the general level of prices which has the effect of reducing the purchasing power of a given amount of money.
INCOME – Payment derived from wages, salaries or investment.
1.8 STUDY AREA
This study is limited to the study of the cause and consequence of unemployment in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State. It has boundaries with Onicha-Ugbo, Obior, Ute-Okpu, Umunede, it also extends to Ehwohimi and Ekpon in Edo State.
The language of Ika people are Ika and Ibo and they are mostly subsistence farmers, farming in crops like yam, cassava and melon but cultivate tomatoes in large quantity.
Ika North East Local Government is noted for its cultural changes, previously some social activities like marriage ceremony and other yearly festivities normally dominate the social scene of Ika North East Local Government Area, even the masquerade play in December during “Igue” Festival. These have direct consequences on the social life of the people mostly in the observance of laws and social norms.
The geographical location of Ika North East Local Government is at the northern part of Delta state. Ika North East lies to the territory, which stands on latitude 4570 North of the Equator and longitude 8200 East. To the North and North East of it are Asaba and Isele-Ukwu regions respectively. While to the immediate distant west are the Abavo and Ekwu-Agbor area respectively.
The political system that existed in Ika North East especially during the colonial period might be thought of as a federation of loosely-knit towns although we might have witnessed some changes in the structures as Ika kingdom holistically. The Ika ethnic groups is made up of two local governments which are ruled by two kings, with sovereign territories.
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The concept of unemployment: Like others in the fields of human endeavour has received various definitions and descriptions. This is because human beings view things from different perspectives. Therefore, this sub-section is meant to review some of the definitions of unemployment given by scholars and then, try to agree on working definition of unemployment.
According to Nicholas (2000), a person is unemployed if he or she is eligible for work but does not have a job.
Volkova (1986) maintained that an unemployment situation is in other words called mass-unemployment when the number of qualified manpower who are unemployed is considerably enough or outnumber that of those in gainful employment.
Keynes (1935), stated that the term unemployment is used to apply in literal sense to all persons without work, but it has come to have more specific meaning in contemporary realization of social and economic policy.
According to Volkova and Volkova (1986:226), he saw unemployment as to be left without means of sustenance, without an opportunity to eat food an have decent housing, it means to loose confidence in today and hope for tomorrow. To a layman, Volkova’s definition has gone a long way to enlighten on what unemployment look like.
Aguene (1991), defined unemployment as the number of people in the population who are willing and offer themselves for employment but could not be employed because of lack of vacancies for them.
The most appropriate definition of unemployment is the one given by Lampman (1974). He said that unemployment is a social-economical situation in which persons who have no work and are able and willing to work and also actively seeking for work but no work.
All legal definitions of unemployment and in particular, the international definition given by Labour statistical assume that the individual concerned is actively looking for work, except in the case of someone who has been laid of where reference to that state might seem superfluous.
According to the Eight International Conference of Employment Statisticians, in Statistiques de Population Active Inactive Geneva, International Labour Office (Report No. 14, 1954), People legally considered unemployed fell under the following groups.
a. Workers available for employment whose contract of employment has terminated or been temporarily suspended and who are without a job and seeking paid employment.
b. Persons never previously employed, whose most recent status was other than that of employee, together with persons who had been in retirement who were available for work during a specific period (except for reason for non-malignant illness) and were seeking paid employment.
c. Persons without a job and currently available for work who have made arrangement to start a new job at a date subsequent to the specified period.
d. Persons temporarily or indefinitely laid-off without pay.
The aim of such definition as put forward by Armin (1976), is to illustrate and measure an anomaly in the way which the economy of a country functions.
Lampman (1974) observed that there is considerable controversy concerning the number and nature of persons who should be counted as unemployed in a country at a particular moment in time. In answer to this controversy, Lampman (1974) stated that only those persons not at work for more than a specified minimum of time and who are able and are willing to work, and also actively seeking work, are generally considered as employed.
According to Rodney (1985), the term unemployed is not applied to everyone who is not employed but only those of legal working age and older who are without jobs and seeking for work.
The fact that there is no reliable data on the figure of unemployed Nigerians not withstanding very much, Nigerians are unemployed.
Princewill, reporting in (Vanguard April 9, 2002) stated that the half-year report on the national unemployment rate by the Federal Office of Statistics has indicated a high unemployment rate among school leavers and uneducated people. The age between 15 and 24 years has the highest rate of 29.3%, while the group between 45 and 59 years had 10.3% and the age of 65 to 70 years had 16.7%. The pattern was maintained when the rat were considered within the urban and rural sector.
In a similar account of National Directorate of Employment (NDE), was reported by the News Watch magazine publication of (4th September, 1986) was saying that as at September 1995, one out of every twelve Nigerians was unemployed in urban sector while one out of every six Nigerians was unemployed in rural sector going by the NDE report, it seems rightly believable if one claims that over ten million Nigerians workforce are unemployed. One might ask, which is the most hit group by unemployment in Nigeria
Aremu (1986) maintained that the “Active” population of Nigeria is the most hard hit group by unemployment. He stated that 39.3% of the unemployment fall within the age group of 15-19 years of age. The unemployment situation in the country has affected many institutions and activities in Nigeria.
Haralambos (2004) used the International Labour Organisation’s definition of unemployment argued that the unemployed are those who were without work in a particular week, who were available to start work in the next two weeks and who were waiting to start a job or had looked for work in the previous month.
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
Lampman (1974), in his research on unemployment and its causes found that a good research on the effect of unemployment, and an intelligent approach to public policy aimed at preventing or reducing it and would demand some understanding of the causes of unemployment in a given society.
Hanson (1977) carried out a research on the root cause of the economic setback in the post-colonial West Africa, with six countries, which included Nigeria, Algeria, Ghana, Kenya, Tunisia, and Ivory Cost. In his result, he discovered that the utter neglect paid on agricultural development in a bid towards the realization of industrial economic ambition in the underdeveloped Africa is responsible for their employment problems. He maintained that in any economy where adequate attention is paid to agriculture, that almost everybody is self-employed and that the number of the unemployed is easy to control.
According to Lampman (1974) report on the causes of unemployment stated that Agriculture is the taproot of our economy. He warned that any attempt to give agricultural activities a secondary attention in the economy of any nation would sooner or later create an unemployment situation.
Investigations into Nigerians sources of revenue in the 1960 an early 1970 showed that agricultural products were the chief source of income to the country. But with the neglect of agriculture due to oil boom, the economy late failed, and has resulted into unemployment.
The second factor according to Lampman (1974) was that the degree of unemployment in the developing countries were due to the neglect of indigenous technology and inadequate patronage received by local industries from the consumers and their government as well as the rate of profit reinvestment in the foreign owned industries in the country. He observed that in any economic system where indigenous technology and local industries were not encouraged and patronized, there tend to be a decrease in the production capacity and , an increase in the dumping of the country’s wealth in foreign countries in the name of purchasing foreign goods. The situation he concluded is found to cause unemployment.
The picture portrayed by Lampman, about was actually what happened in Nigeria, more especially during oil boom period that has resulted to the unemployment situation in the country.
Keynes (1935) in his book “The general theory of employment, interest and money” found that the amount of money industrialists and business men tried to hold out from investment causes unemployment. Instead of expanding industries with the acquired profit to create employment opportunities, they lavish them unnecessarily.
Besides the neglect of indigenous technology and lack of patronage to local industries, Teriba (1977), pointed out that the poor management of our public industries and the unpatriotic attitude of Nigerians towards work and public property was a great factor causing unemployment problems. They maintained that Nigeria’s unemployment situation stems from the fact that Nigerian industrialists rely much on purchasing and processing much of the raw materials abroad.
Achebe (1983) in his comparative analysis study on “The Trouble with Nigeria” discovered that lack of patriotism among Nigerians have contributed very much to our unemployment situation. He pointed out that the evidence in the past showed that unpatriotic act of most Nigerians in public industries on public properties, consideration of “self first”, the sweeping destruction of public property worsened Nigeria unemployment situation.
Volkova et al (1986) in his search for further reasons for the poor economic condition of the third world countries discovered that the on-going brain-drain in developing countries as a result of unpatriotism among Nigeria third world specialists whose special knowledge were needed to improve the economy, has aggravated the unemployment situation in Nigeria.
Rodney (1971) and Todaro (1982) have reported their research results on the utility of the educational system introduced to us by the colonial masters as being the cause of unemployment among our graduates. Rodney (1971) in his findings on the nature of African society and the nature of Educational system introduced to us by the colonial masters pointed out that the educational system was non-functional. He stated that his findings on the educational system and the growth of our economy, compared with that of Europe, the colonial masters revealed our educational system as institution of unemployment.
Ojukwu (1989), while analyzing the cause of unemployment in Nigeria in his book, “I am involved” concluded that the production of much graduates was not responsible for the unemployment situation in the country. Rather, he observed that the social scourge unemployment caused by the inversely proportional pattern of education and economic advancement. He blamed the impropriety on the psychological “blindness of our economic planners in the oil boom days than on “over-production “ of graduates.
Finally, the greatest unemployment causing factor in Nigeria has been identified to the ineptitude, corruption, fraud and general failure of leadership.
Achebe (1983) in one of the findings in his book “The Trouble with Nigeria, emphasized that the cult of corruption formed by our rulers, and their insatiable quest to loot the national treasury has sailed us into the “ocean” of economic confusion and unemployment. In his observation, it is true that a Nigeria free from corrupt rulers would be Nigeria freed from unemployment.
CONSEQUENCES OR EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Unemployment is undesirable, bringing economic, social and political vices in the society. It has numerous consequences to society it visits. The high wave of crime, robbery among youths has been traced to unemployment.
Princewill, in Vanguard (June 25, 2002) observed that since 1999, this country has experienced unprecedented rise in crime wave, armed robbery, political assassinations, religious riots, inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic clashes, communal clashes was due to the increasing unemployment rate.
Recently, researchers have noticed an unprecedented increase in prostitution among young girls. This result of investigation carried out in our brothels and hostels in some urban areas in Nigeria among prostitutes confessed resorting to the fate because of the scourge of unemployment. According to Osi (2001), on the research on the consequences of unemployment maintained that the fact that autonomous consumption is inevitable, makes some feeble minded ones indulge in robbery. Besides, examination malpractices are perpetrated by some jobless school leavers, who must make ends meet. These teach the younger society negative options available for survival.
Similarly, the issue of unemployment has caused hunger and malnutrition. Volkova et al (1986) stated that unemployment and price increase of food and the unceasing onslaught of the unemployed and their dependents have led to increase malnutrition and its associated diseases in the third world.
Marsden (1975) and Smith (1995) both agreed that as far as unemployment affects the individual, the most social effect is loss of income, and that unemployment is in the first place of problem of poverty. This affects the personality of the employed in that it is possible for an inferiority complex to set in.
According to Nicholas et al (2000), the social consequences of unemployment for those who are out of work include higher incidence of poverty. Ill-health and death, demoralized and strained family relationship. For society as a whole, they include the failure to realize the social investment in human capital made through the education system, and a loss of tax revenue combined with increased out going in unemployment benefits that threatens the financing of other parts of the welfare of the state.
Also, the evil effects of mass unemployment have cracked some families in the country. It has led to broken marriages of once happily married couples. As well, “Awake magazine” (July 22, 1984) supported this when it stated that families have broken up and the future of their children bleak owing to unemployment. Graham (1992) maintained that some unemployed people, and their families, experience anxiety and despair, frustration and desperate unhappiness. He also stated that the psychological pressure of unemployment cause some people to suffer stress.
Unemployment represents a waste of human labour. An increase in the size of the non-working population is a simultaneous increase in the burden of “liability” of the working population. An implication can be drawn from here that some difficulties do arise as to how to manage the meagre finance of the working force also, it can be implied that a grossly lowered standard dissatisfaction and insecurity. Usen (1978) noted that the unemployed eventually becomes psychologically wreck. These are many more consequences of unemployment such as poor housing, poor clothing, lack of medical care, poor means of transportation and so on is the genesis of the technical knockout unemployment has for Nigeria should our leaders not live to their responsibilities.
Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society
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